The Glossary

Toe-cap : Rigid reinforcement placed at the front of the shoe, between the stem and the lining, to protect the toes from the shocks and keep shape.

Fitting : Set of the features of a shoe that allows it to dress properly and comfortably the foot.

Buttress : Semi-rigid reinforcement placed on the back of the shoe, between the stem and lining, to maintain the heel.

Derby : "Open" lacing shoes, the guarantors are sewn on the vamp.

Lining : Inner dressing of the shoe, in contact with the foot.

Vamp : Front part of the stem, covering the instep and the tip of the shoe.

Form : Wooden or plastic mold, representing the volume of the foot, used for the manufacture of the shoe.

Guarantors : add-on parts on which the eyelets are, or other closing device.

Assembly : Action which consists in positioning the upper perfectly on the form in order to assemble it.

Nubuck : Leather whose surface has been finely sanded to obtain a soft and velvety aspect.

Trimming : Technique that consists in refining the thickness of the leather to give it more flexibility.

Full grain : Leather having kept its upper surface intact. Its properties are exceptional.

Quarters : Parts of the upper that envelop the heel and rise up to lacing.

Oxford : "Closed" lacing shoes, quarters are sewn under the vamp.

Upper : Set of parts that forms the upper part of the shoe.

Velvet : Lower part of finely sanded leather to have a soft and velvety aspect.